strange flavor of AI work is that people try to put
together long sets of rules in strict formalisms which tell
inflexible machines how to be flexible."
are including on this site a discussion of artificial intelligence
(AI). Why is this relevant to creativity? The very essence
of creative mind is at the heart of this discussion. There
are those in the field of AI convinced that mechanical devices
can be programmed to be as creative as human beings. To
unravel this debate we must discern what creative mind is,
where it originates from and what motivates its expression.
author of this site believes that true creativity springs from the
creative spirit within each human being. Creative spirit
cannot be duplicated in a mechanical device. Spirit is that illusive
essence that science has yet to get a handle on. When science approaches
a discussion of the spirit it comes up blank because it has not
figured out how to quantify spirit. And, indeed, the very connotation
of creative spirit is something without boundaries or limits, thus
is this creative spirit that allows us intuitive insight. Insight
by definition is something that a machine, no matter how intelligent
or complex it's program, can never experience. A machine can make
determinations between many parameters, as neural networks are designed
to do. But even subtle discernment is not insight. Insight is that
sudden knowing that embraces all aspects of what was formerly an
enigma. It happens in an instant and it is complete in its understanding.
I would agree with Roger Penrose in his books The Emperor's New
Mind, and Shadows of the Mind, that regardless of how
complex a computer program is designed, it will never experience
insight or intuition. Thus, it could never really forge the leaps
and bounds of unknown potentials the human mind is allowed to explore
through creative spirit.
machine is also incapable of dreaming or experiencing imagination.
Imagination is the projection of coherent possibilities onto the
future. Though a computer can be designed to pull together random
or disparate data within certain parameters, it cannot really be
said to experience creative imagination, nor is it capable of overlaying
imaginative thought through the practice of dreaming. For these
reasons creative spirit stands above and beyond any mechanical device,
even those of biological origin, as in molecular nanotechnology.
we will give a brief synopsis of the current efforts of creating
viable artificially intelligent devices. The field of AI can be
broken down into several categories:
Artificial Intelligence (neural networks)
of these categories can be explored in depth by doing a search in
any of the popular search engines giving the criteria for each category.
The following is not an in depth study of AI, as that has been done
in numerous volumes and web sites. This is only a compact introduction
to this subject and further exploration will depend upon the reader's
interest. Suffice it to say, this is enough information to validate
the assertion that creative spirit is a divine gift each human being
possesses and far outweighs anything man has devised in mechanical
form. For this we can appreciate our inherent potentials and learn
to expand and utilize them to their fullest.
neural networks (ANNs) are modeled upon the brain's capacity to
process thought through neuron and synaptic connectivity. In the
brain neurons send electrical charges down axons to the synaptic
endings, where these charges are then passed to other dendrite connections
and coherent thoughts are chemically lodged. The key to making certain
connections is the strength of prior connections. Available
dendrites pass along certain electrochemically charged signals.
The more often these same pathways are forged in the brain, the
more hard wired or concrete the thought pattern.
networks also have weighted connections as a basis for final determination
of data. Standard computer calculation is done with the binary system
of on/off. By utilizing weighted connections a neural network can
be said to learn and process information in a wider context than
simple computational unidirectional programming based on simple
of the ability to process weighted information ANNs can be trained
in pattern recognition. This capacity is necessary to learning languages
or other non-algorithmic or rule based systems. Conventional computers
are good at rigid mathematical data processing but are weak in solving
abstract non-linear data.
are different types of ANNs. One of the more popular is the multilayer
perceptron which is generally trained with the back propagation
of error algorithm, learning vector quantization, or radial basis
function. Some ANNs are classified as feedforward while others are
recurrent (i.e., implement feedback) depending on how data is processed
through the network. In layman's terms some push the weighted information
forward and some depend upon repeated connectivity to process the
following picture is considered a feed forward type of ANN.
method of categorizing ANN types is by their method of learning
(or training). Some ANNs employ supervised training while others
are referred to as unsupervised or self-organizing. Supervised training
is similar to a student guided by a teacher. Unsupervised algorithms
essentially perform clustering of the data into similar groups based
on the measured attributes or features serving as inputs to the
algorithms. This is analogous to a student who learns the lesson
alone. ANNs can be arrayed in software or in specialized hardware.
networks are an evolution of binary computing, yet they are still
primitive in their ability to process data into what could be considered
true creativity. Continual research and development in hardware
and software is ongoing but may never rival the elegance of the
human brain/mind propelled by creative spirit.
has been around since the 1950s. Robotics is the attempt for man
to create computerized systems that can duplicate or mimic man's
efforts. Flash Gordon's partner has come a long way.
Wabot-1 was the first full-scale anthropomorphic robot built. It
consisted of a limb control system, a vision system, and a conversation
system. The Wabot-1 was able to communicate with a person in Japanese
and to measure distances and directions to the objects using external
receptors, artificial ears and eyes, and an artificial mouth. The
Wabot-1 walked with his lower limbs and was able to grip and transport
objects with hands that used tactile sensors.
anthropomorphic robot called "Hadaly" was developed in
1995, to study human-robot communication. Hadaly has three subsystems:
a head-eye subsystem, a voice control system for listening and speaking,
and a motion control subsystem. The head-eye subsystem makes it
possible to turn toward the visitor. The voice subsystem converses
with the visitor in Japanese and the motion control subsystem moves
the arms to point toward campus destinations. The name Hadaly is
from the manmade human in the novel "L'eve Future" by
French author Villiers de I'Isle-Adam which was written in the 19th
introduced their "Human" robot in Tokyo on December 20,
1996. It stands 6 feet tall and weighs about 460 pounds. In can
operate completely independently on battery power for 15 minutes.
This is truly a great achievement. Their web page offers 4 quicktime
movies of the robot walking, climbing steps, pushing a cart, and
tightening a nut.
a complete discussion of the subject of robotics as it exists today
you can go to the site of The Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS).
This society was formed in 1994 and continues to monitor and hold
conferences on this exciting and unique approach to artificial intelligence.
of course, (the infamous Data of Star Trek fame) are included in
this discussion. The ultimate robot would have computational and
memory capacities that exceed the average intelligence. But as with
Data, a machine does not have emotions. Emotions are potentially
weakening to the intelligent organism, but they are also capable
of experiencing subtleties that algorithmic processing cannot determine.
Even the ultimate android would not contain a spiritual essence,
and thus would be incapable of discerning the subtlest of creative
indicators in the environment.
field of molecular nanotechnology comes the closest to employing
that illusive spirit. This approach actually utilizes biological
molecular substances in many cases. According to John Walker the
usefulness of nanotechnology is determined by, "...what we're
talking about is making the next big jump to building systems a
thousand times smaller than the ones we're making today; to go all
the way to the bottom and start working with individual atoms....This
is called molecular engineering, or nanotechnology. Eric Drexler
defines this as control of the structure of matter at the molecular
level, however achieved.
fact, we're already building components on the scale of biological
systems. The picture below shows a neuron net from a human brain
with an integrated circuit component inset at the same scale. The
picture below is a synapse - the interconnection of the wiring in
the human brain, with a one micrometre scale. Remember that this
is just about the feature size of the wires in our integrated circuits."
huge difference in capability between engineered and biological systems
is not just the materials from which they're made, it's that the fine
structure of the integrated circuit stops with what you can see: there's
nothing down below. Since we're forced to fabricate our circuits from
bulk material, from the top down, they must be essentially two-dimensional.
Biology builds its structures from the bottom up, at the molecular
level, and in three dimensions.
other reason that nanotechnology at the biological level has the
greatest possibility of employing human creative mind is that it
also utilizes the microtubules. These are discussed at length
on our page The Biology
of a Creative Mind. Microtubules are the very essence
of our biological being and the seat of consciousness as it is processed
through the material world. Creative spirit as a form of intelligence
can be captured at this level.
a complete discussion of nanotechnology go to the site http://www.fourmilab.ch/autofile/www/section2_84_15.html
by John Walker. He has done a very thorough job of discussing nanotechnology.
approach to creativity via a neural network was invented by Dr.
Stephan Thaler. This may be the closest option yet that you can
experience yourself on the internet to creative thought as processed
programmatically using the mechanics of a neural network. To get
a full understanding of his invention go to his site http://www.imagination-engines.com.
The site is very informative and playful. By the time you're
through you'll have a complete understanding of why Dr. Thaler feels
this machine can rival human creativity.
summation, Enchanted Mind believes that true creative mind is generated
by something beyond the scope of any computer program, either algorithmic
or non-linearly (fuzzy logic) based. This being, of course, the
human Spirit. Creativity is not an intellectual process or even
a purely artistic or emotional process. Intuitive insight cannot
be described adequately, but must be experienced. It's sort of like
love, you can talk all around it, but until you've experienced it,
you really don't have a complete grasp of it's full breadth and
the field of artificial intelligence is progressing by leaps and
bounds, it is and will remain artificial in it's scope. Creative
spirit will never be boxed or caged into a mechanical devise. It
is this spirit that needs be cultivated.
J.L. Read, 1998. All Rights Reserved.
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